19 – The Late Bronze Age and the End of Peace

international trade: glass from Canaan or Egypt; Silver from Anatolya; Copper from Cyprus (Alashiya); Horses from Mittani; Textiles from Babylonia; Olive Oil and Perfume from Greece; Ivory and Ebony from Africa; Incense from Arabia; Gold from Egypt; Then suddenly the whole system collapsed because of drought which brought refugees the Sea people, and because of […]

18 Land Grants and Royal Favor in Mittani

they had something like feudalism with lands given by the king, and the king was also present (through his seal or maybe statue of him) in every significant deal between people.

17 Princess Tadu-Hepa, Diplomacy, and Marriage

peace between the four powers (egypt, “turkey” (hatti), “syria” (mittani) and “iraq” (kassite babylonia)). the Egyptians accepted all the diplomatic customs of the others, except they didn’t want to give an Egyptian princess to anyone. but to the others this was interpreted as if the Egyptians are inferior this way (they became the Egyptian king’s […]

15 Justice in the Old Babylonian Period

laws of Hamurabi. The mere threat of the river ordeal was often enough to reveal the truth. an innocent person would have agreed to it readily – knowing that she will survive. a guilty person would rather confess than drown in the river – the penalty that the gods will undoubtedly impose. so the person’s […]

14 War and Society in Hammurabi’s Time

despite our image of ancient people, there was very little violence within the community. people got along very well within their community and they valued civility and generosity. there is much less cranial trauma than in surrounding lands, so that means they got less into disputes and this is because of the Code of Hammurabi.

10 The Fall of Akkad and Gudea of Lagash

Gudea was so different: he didn’t try to seem terrifying; he didn’t claim to be the king of the Universe; he didn’t tear down city walls and drag kings into captivity in neck-stocks. this model of rule influenced many kings after him.