10 The Fall of Akkad and Gudea of Lagash

Gudea was so different: he didn’t try to seem terrifying; he didn’t claim to be the king of the Universe; he didn’t tear down city walls and drag kings into captivity in neck-stocks. this model of rule influenced many kings after him.

09 Akkadian Empire Arts and Gods

using Lost-Wax Casting (although it was invented in Bulgaria and Pakistan) Enheduanna the daughter of Sargon was the world’s first author – she wrote hymns in the 23rd century BCE.

lecture 7 – workers and worshipers

Mesopotamians drank beer all the time. it was safer than drinking water, because the fermentation process sterilized it. drank through straws from big communal pots at banquets. In all 3 ancient places: Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, nobles were buried with dozens of attendants (common people who were killed with poison or bashed on the head), […]

city-state kings and diplomacy

regular exchange of messengers; agreement to abide by treaties; exchange of letters between kingdoms; giving luxury goods to one another; marrying an ally’s daughter.

lecture 5 – world’s biggest city Uruk

invention of the plow (women descrimination); Wheel inventions: wheel pottery (mass production), and from that wheels transport (a boat on land), cylinder seal (identifying signature), and from that a writing system (memory aids numbers) on clay – proto-cuneiform. for names they use Rebus principle (Barbie = bar+bee). in Sumerian language all words are one syllable […]