Quickened Time

I invented a new explanation for how cosmology works, that doesn't require "dark matter" and "dark energy". But it does require us to think differently about time.

Standard explanation

Universe expanding faster

All the stars and galaxies appear to be moving away from us. The further they are, the faster they are moving away.
So scientists think there is a misterious energy in the vacuum of space itself that acts in the opposite way to gravitation. Gravitation pulls objects closer together; but this misterious energy pushes objects further apart.
Because they don't know what it is, they call it "Dark Energy".

Galaxy rotation curves

The way galaxies are turning around is different from our Solar System.
In our Solar System, the more distant a planet is from the center, it takes more time for it to rotate around the center of the Solar System. For example Mars encircles the Sun in about twice the time of us.
On the other hand in each galaxy, matter go around the center of the galaxy at the same time, whether it's closer to the center or closer to the perimeter. So the whole galaxy rotates as a single block.
So scientists think there is invisible matter near the perimeter of the galaxies, that binds it to together like "glue", to rotate as one piece. They call this invisible matter "Dark Matter".

Gravitational lensing

Intuitively we feel that light travels in a straight line. But Einstein's Relativity tells us that gravity pulls on light just like on us. So when the light passes close to something heavy it bends a little towards it.
This causes the "Gravitational Lens" effect: We can see what's behind a heavy object (like a cluster) because the light of what's behind it bends around the object like light does inside a lens. The heavier the object - the more lensing it causes.
But clusters make more lensing than what they should have according to the mass of their visible matter. So scientists think there is more matter in the clusters which we can't see. Again they call it "Dark Matter".

Alternative explanation

Time can speed up

From Einstein's Relativity we know that time isn't constant everywhere. According to this theory time is passing at our time's "normal" speed always, except in these two situations:
Time SLOW DOWN the more we get closer and closer to a black hole (great mass). Time also SLOW DOWN the more we travel faster and faster close to the speed of light (great acceleration).

My theory on the other hand, is that time can also SPEED UP.

I think time is like the number line, and the zero point (the origin) is on the rim of each black hole (the event horizon).
I think the further we get away from such black holes, the faster time flows. Scientists believe that at the center of each galaxy (including our own Milky Way) there is a black hole. so I believe that between the galaxies, deep in empty space, time runs very fast.
I also think that inside black holes time flows in reverse (time runs backwards) like a movie that you rewind backwards, but we won't talk about this now.

So what does this mean? What does my theory dictate?
The further we get away from a black hole the faster things are happening. What is happening in the rim of a galaxy? Spinning. So the rim (perimeter) of every galaxy actually does spin faster - fast enough to compensate for "Kepler's Second Law" that slows it down.
So these two opposing effects balance each other, and in every galaxy all its parts spin in a uniform rate. So this explains the "galaxy rotation curves". no need for "dark matter".

Now let's think about what we SEE.

Let's say that we are looking at some object, but not directly. Instead we are looking at a TV screen that is connected to a CCTV camera. We watch the object in real-time (ignore the small delay).
Now let's put between the screen and the camera a Video Cassette Recorder (VCR - yes I grew up in the 80's) that records from the camera and after that plays to the screen. If the VCR can't play in "Fast Forward", then it's just like before (ignore the small delay).
But if the VCR rolls the recording of what the camera captured in fast forward speed, then we see it on the screen the object looks faster than in real-time.

Now let's say that the outer space between our eyes and a far away object (for example a distant quasar) acts in much the same way as a long chain of screens, video-recorders, and cameras:

→ . . . →

EYES --> screen --> VCR --> camera --> . . . --> screen --> VCR --> camera --> STAR

Here I tried to draw on the left side our eye, and on the right side the object (for example a quasar).
In the middle a chain of cameras photographing screens that display cameras that photograph screens and so on (and between each screen and camera there's a fast forwarding VCR).
The playing speed of the VCR is dictated by the speed of time where the VCR is. In deep space between the galaxies, time is very fast, so the VCR plays very fast forward.
You also understand that the longer this chain is (ignore the small delay) the faster our eyes will eventually see the object moving (or doing what it does), because of the accumulated "fast forward" of all the VCR-s between us and the object.
This explains why far away objects LOOK like they are moving away from us faster and faster the further away they are. So we explained the "universe expanding faster". No need for "dark energy".


Let's understand first how optical lensing works. I have a swiss army knife that's called Swiss Champ and it's got a magnifying glass.
When you touch the glass with your fingers, you feel that the magnifying glass is "fatter" in its center, and gets "thinner" when you are closer to its perimeter. So the light pass slower through the center.
A similar thing happens in gravitational lensing - the light that passes through the center of the cluster passes near black hole(s) where time is slower. so that light moves slower through the cluster.
This gives us the extra lensing effect, so again there is no need for "dark matter".

Time as a vector field

So far, without explicitly saying it, I treated time like a scalar field - where in every point in space there is a number which tells us what's the speed of time there. Like in temperature.
If the number is positive time moves forward. The bigger the number, the faster the time there.
If the number is negative, time flows backwards. Again, the bigger (in its absolute value) the number, the faster time runs backwards.
Of course if the number is zero, time stands still in that point and it's like you pressed "freeze" in your VCR.

What if time is not like the field of temperature, but instead it's like the field of electricity and magnetism?
This is called a "vector field" because in every point in space we have not just a number but an arrow of certain size pointing at certain direction.

The vector field of the magnetic field can be seen using small iron rods (functioning like plotting compasses) - video thanks to UniServeScienceVIDEO

The vector field of the magnetic field can be seen using iron filings (here floating in mineral oil) - video thanks to UniServeScienceVIDEO

If time is so affected by gravity then maybe they are both two sides of the same coin!

Is the relationship between them is similar to the relationship between electricity and magnetism? a movement of the one produces the other and vice versa.

moving an electrical charge (current of electrons flow inside a wire) creates magnetic field; moving magnet creates electric current (moving electrons in a wire).

Let's check:

Where do we have moving time? Black holes have a large effect on time, so we'll refer to them as "time charges".

When two black holes rotate around each other, they create gravitational waves! The LIGO experiment found them.

Maybe it's more accurate to see the gravitational waves as equivalent to the radio waves - oscillating fields of electro-magnetism that build each other.

So maybe gravitational waves are gravity field building a time field building a gravity field building a time field and so on and so on.

What about the opposite? Do moving gravity charges (masses) create time?

In my theory this is the solution to the "Final parsec problem":

When two galaxies collide, their black holes (in the "heart" of each galaxy there is a black hole) merge.

At first the black holes miss (pass by) each other, and then again but closer, and so on.

When they are at a distance of one parsec (a few light years) from each other,

There isn't enough material between them to get them together, so theoretically this should take billions of years, longer then the universe's age.

But we do see binary black holes that merged, so there is a problem what happens in the last parsec - how do they come together so fast?

My solution is that it doesn't happen fast, but instead it does take billions of years but they generate time a lot of time there that encapsulates itself.

Whatever is in there is running "fast forward" for us.

In fact I think the similarities run a lot deeper.

Cosmic Inflation explained

In a simple bar magnet has a north pole on one side which is the "source" of the field,

and a south pole on the other side which is the "sink" of the field (the lines of force go in arcs from the source to the sink).

I claim that in the same way time also has a "sink" which is a "black hole", and a "source" which is a "white hall" or a "big bang".

I think also explains what happened in the big bang of our universe, how it happened so fast, and especially the "Cosmological Inflation" or "Cosmic Inflation"

Scientists say at the inflation stage things happened very fast: the universe inflated almost at once.

This is easy to explain of you see the "Big Bang" as a huge "source" of time,

And within this huge amount of time, the universe could have enough time to inflate, And only from outside this time it looks like it happened very quickly.

Imagine a gradient of time flowing from this singularity, where all the time in the immediate vacinity of this point runs extremely fast, and the further away you go, the slower the time gets,

until you get to more "normal" time speed which is where we are for example. okay so we got an explanation to Cosmic Inflation.

Origin of the Universe

How can we find this location where the big bang happened? I thought of 2 strategies, both lead to the same conclusion: Go towards where the time is faster.

Strategy I : Move up the gradient field to where the time field is strong (which means time runs faster there)

In this way we will reach either a local maximum - a white hole, or the white hole of the white holes, which is the real maximum - the big bang place.

This would be similar to someone walking with a compass until he reaches the north pole.

But in this metaphor we have scattered about strong local magnets (for example: MagLab in Florida)

One way to rule out these diversions is to look what generates this time field when we get to the center.

Another better way to avoid these local ones, is to spread the search in different directions and compare for the most "universal" source.

Consider that it's possible that the time field dispersed (like the cosmic radiation which is coming now from all directions equally).

Strategy II : Move to the "root" of the Orrery where absolute movement is zero (which means time runs faster there)

As you know the Earth is rotating around the Sun, and the Sun is rotating around the center of our Milky Way galaxy, and our Galaxy rotates around the Local Group cluster, and so on.

This Orrery series of "gears" or "cogwheels" isn't infinite.

At the end of it is the center of the universe, which is logical to assume is also the location of the big bang.

How do we find it? Since our absolute speed is a composite of the movement of the Earth's movement and the Sun's movement, and the Milky Way's movement etc, we are the fastest.

Since the faster you fly (on "spaceship" Earth) - the slower time runs (according to relativity), then our time is the slowest.

To get to the roots of the tree that we are on, we need to go to where the time is faster.

Exiting to 4-D (the fourth spatial dimension)

If we do find the location of that ultimate White Hole,

then this is the place where we can enter the fourth spatial dimension (if you count 3 spatial dimensions and the 4th is time, then call it the 5th dimension).

How do we do this? Let's get back to the magnets metaphor.

The following wonderful pictures are from the flickr account the gifted Dayna Mason:

In this demonstration the compasses are on a plane. Their needles show the field.

Here the compasses crowd the whole plane 2-D.

In analogy to the compasses limited to their 2-D plane, we are limited to a 3-D space. The things that control our space are gravity and time.

So how does this help us to find higher dimensions? We use another property of the analogy, which is that two same-type polls repel each other.

Here ring shaped magnets are threaded on a rod. The rod doesn't support them, it's just there so that they don't flip over.

Here you see how strongly they repel each other - they are floating in the air!

What do we need to do to get to the next dimension? We need to somehow be lifted off from the "glass plane".

Imagine we have two bar magnets on the plane, and one of them is very heavy so it's not mobile. let's suppose it's glued to the table.

Let's also say that the other magnet is free to move freely in that plane, let's make it a "Air Hockey" table with no friction.

Then we slide the mobile magnet, give it a strong push so it glides towards the immobile magnet.

(If all this is too much for you, just think of a tiny magnet thrown towards a huge magnet.)

Now what will happen? If the moving magnet is free to rotate, it will rotate so it is attracted to the fixed magnet and they will stick to each other.

But if we can make sure that the moving magnet is aimed with same-type of poll towards each other (prevent it from flipping over), the moving magnet will most likely be knocked off the table.

Why is the moving magnet thrown up from the table? because we can't aim it percisely to be head on in front of the other magnet, so the immobile magnet throws the mobile magnet backwards at random.

Since the original plane is only one of many possible planes (that exist in 3-D) then it's most probable that the original plane will not be "selected" and we'll fall off the table.

How do we apply this to our situation with the sources and sinks of time and gravity?

I think the analogue here to drag a white hole and shoot it fast towards a bigger white hole.

This task is unfortunately not in our powers to do yet, but what we can do is look for places where this already happened in the past,

and search for the breach to the 4th dimension by looking for places where radiation is lost into emptiness (where the radiation escapes to the 4th dimension).

By the way the idea that gravity leaks into the fourth dimension is not new at all, this is one explanation of why gravity is so weak compared to the other forces.

I think it's safe to assume that in the location of the big bang, there was the equivalent of white holes slamming against each other, so there has to be an opening there.

Again, if this "portal" is still open we can use it (now without the violence of it's creation) to enter the fourth dimension!

Entering back to 3-D (our "normal" reality)

Assuming that we can enter the 4th dimension safely, which is not trivial at all (see the second answer to this question in StackExchange Physics),

How do we find our way back to the "table" ?

In this demonstration the iron filings are on a transparent glass plane

They align along the field lines, but mostly limited to the same 2-D plane by gravity

Theoretically all the "arcs" (curved field lines) exit the north pole and enter the south pole.

But the only one that is special is the straight one (that goes along the bar magnet). This is the shortest one.

So in our time-gravity analogy what will we see? I think we will see thin threads of realities that go in different speeds.

The reality line between the time source and the time sink is closest to the gravity so that reality will run in the slowest pace.

William James Sidis

When you Google "smartest person ever" you find the sad story of William James Sidis. According to Wikipedia, Sidis was amazing.

For example, in his book in 1920 he predicted the existance of Dark Matter! But he also predicted that time can flow in a different way in different places in space - what we would now call outside of our galaxy:

We may, therefore, assume that, in the part of space and time under our observation (which, we know is very limited) the preponderance is towards the positive tendency. We may suppose that there are other parts of space, and other periods of time, when the preponderance will be in the reverse direction.

I only read this AFTER I thought about this MYSELF, so I see it as a case of: great minds think alike!

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