I invented a new explanation for how cosmology works, that doesn't require "dark matter" and "dark energy". But it does require us to think differently about time.
Universe expanding faster
All the stars and galaxies appear to be moving away from us. The further they are, the faster they are moving away.
So scientists think there is a misterious energy in the vacuum of space itself that acts in the opposite way to gravitation. Gravitation pulls objects closer together; but this misterious energy pushes objects further apart.
Because they don't know what it is, they call it "Dark Energy".
Galaxy rotation curves
The way galaxies are turning around is different from our Solar System.
In our Solar System, the more distant a planet is from the center, it takes more time for it to rotate around the center of the Solar System. For example Mars encircles the Sun in about twice the time of us.
On the other hand in each galaxy, matter go around the center of the galaxy at the same time, whether it's closer to the center or closer to the perimeter. So the whole galaxy rotates as a single block.
So scientists think there is invisible matter near the perimeter of the galaxies, that binds it to together like "glue", to rotate as one piece. They call this invisible matter "Dark Matter".
Intuitively we feel that light travels in a straight line. But Einstein's Relativity tells us that gravity pulls on light just like on us. So when the light passes close to something heavy it bends a little towards it.
This causes the "Gravitational Lens" effect: We can see what's behind a heavy object (like a cluster) because the light of what's behind it bends around the object like light does inside a lens. The heavier the object - the more lensing it causes.
But clusters make more lensing than what they should have according to the mass of their visible matter. So scientists think there is more matter in the clusters which we can't see. Again they call it "Dark Matter".
Time can speed up
From Einstein's Relativity we know that time isn't constant everywhere. According to this theory time is passing at our time's "normal" speed always, except in these two situations:
Time SLOW DOWN the more we get closer and closer to a black hole (great mass). Time also SLOW DOWN the more we travel faster and faster close to the speed of light (great acceleration).
My theory on the other hand, is that time can also SPEED UP.
I think time is like the number line, and the zero point (the origin) is on the rim of each black hole (the event horizon).
I think the further we get away from such black holes, the faster time flows. Scientists believe that at the center of each galaxy (including our own Milky Way) there is a black hole. so I believe that between the galaxies, deep in empty space, time runs very fast.
I also think that inside black holes time flows in reverse (time runs backwards) like a movie that you rewind backwards, but we won't talk about this now.
So what does this mean? What does my theory dictate?
The further we get away from a black hole the faster things are happening. What is happening in the rim of a galaxy? Spinning. So the rim (perimeter) of every galaxy actually does spin faster - fast enough to compensate for "Kepler's Second Law" that slows it down.
So these two opposing effects balance each other, and in every galaxy all its parts spin in a uniform rate. So this explains the "galaxy rotation curves". no need for "dark matter".
Now let's think about what we SEE.
Let's say that we are looking at some object, but not directly. Instead we are looking at a TV screen that is connected to a CCTV camera. We watch the object in real-time (ignore the small delay).
Now let's put between the screen and the camera a Video Cassette Recorder (VCR - yes I grew up in the 80's) that records from the camera and after that plays to the screen. If the VCR can't play in "Fast Forward", then it's just like before (ignore the small delay).
But if the VCR rolls the recording of what the camera captured in fast forward speed, then we see it on the screen the object looks faster than in real-time.
Now let's say that the outer space between our eyes and a far away object (for example a distant quasar) acts in much the same way as a long chain of screens, video-recorders, and cameras:
→ → →
. . .
→ → → →
EYES --> screen --> VCR --> camera --> . . . --> screen --> VCR --> camera --> STAR
Here I tried to draw on the left side our eye, and on the right side the object (for example a quasar).
In the middle a chain of cameras photographing screens that display cameras that photograph screens and so on (and between each screen and camera there's a fast forwarding VCR).
The playing speed of the VCR is dictated by the speed of time where the VCR is. In deep space between the galaxies, time is very fast, so the VCR plays very fast forward.
You also understand that the longer this chain is (ignore the small delay) the faster our eyes will eventually see the object moving (or doing what it does), because of the accumulated "fast forward" of all the VCR-s between us and the object.
This explains why far away objects LOOK like they are moving away from us faster and faster the further away they are. So we explained the "universe expanding faster". No need for "dark energy".
Let's understand first how optical lensing works. I have a swiss army knife that's called Swiss Champ and it's got a magnifying glass.
When you touch the glass with your fingers, you feel that the magnifying glass is "fatter" in its center, and gets "thinner" when you are closer to its perimeter. So the light pass slower through the center.
A similar thing happens in gravitational lensing - the light that passes through the center of the cluster passes near black hole(s) where time is slower. so that light moves slower through the cluster.
This gives us the extra lensing effect, so again there is no need for "dark matter".
Time as a vector field
So far, without explicitly saying it, I treated time like a scalar field - where in every point in space there is a number which tells us what's the speed of time there. Like in temperature.
If the number is positive time moves forward. The bigger the number, the faster the time there.
If the number is negative, time flows backwards. Again, the bigger (in its absolute value) the number, the faster time runs backwards.
Of course if the number is zero, time stands still in that point and it's like you pressed "freeze" in your VCR.
What if time is not like the field of temperature, but instead it's like the field of electricity and magnetism?
This is called a "vector field" because in every point in space we have not just a number but an arrow of certain size pointing at certain direction.
The vector field of the magnetic field can be seen using small iron rods (functioning like plotting compasses) - video thanks to UniServeScienceVIDEO
The vector field of the magnetic field can be seen using iron filings (here floating in mineral oil) - video thanks to UniServeScienceVIDEO
If time is so affected by gravity then maybe they are both two sides of the same coin!
Is the relationship between them is similar to the relationship between electricity and magnetism? a movement of the one produces the other and vice versa.
moving an electrical charge (current of electrons flow inside a wire) creates magnetic field; moving magnet creates electric current (moving electrons in a wire).
Where do we have moving time? Black holes have a large effect on time, so we'll refer to them as "time charges".
When two black holes rotate around each other, they create gravitational waves! The LIGO experiment found them.
Maybe it's more accurate to see the gravitational waves as equivalent to the radio waves - oscillating fields of electro-magnetism that build each other.
So maybe gravitational waves are gravity field building a time field building a gravity field building a time field and so on and so on.
What about the opposite? Do moving gravity charges (masses) create time?
In this demonstration the iron filings are on a transparent glass plane
They align along the field lines, but mostly limited to the same 2-D plane by gravity
Theoretically all the "arcs" (curved field lines) exit the north pole and enter the south pole.
But the only one that is special is the straight one (that goes along the bar magnet). This is the shortest one.
So in our time-gravity analogy what will we see? I think we will see thin threads of realities that go in different speeds.
The reality line between the time source and the time sink is closest to the gravity so that reality will run in the slowest pace.
William James Sidis
When you Google "smartest person ever" you find the sad story of William James Sidis. According to Wikipedia, Sidis was amazing.
For example, in his book in 1920 he predicted the existance of Dark Matter! But he also predicted that time can flow in a different way in different places in space - what we would now call outside of our galaxy:
We may, therefore, assume that, in the part of space and time under our observation (which, we know is very limited) the preponderance is towards the positive tendency. We may suppose that there are other parts of space, and other periods of time, when the preponderance will be in the reverse direction.
I only read this AFTER I thought about this MYSELF, so I see it as a case of: great minds think alike!
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